dendrobium officinale culture

Carnation transformation was reported in the early 1990s and reliable protocols for transformation across multiple varieties were reported by Lu et al. Peanut meal is rich in total sugar, which is second only to protein. The main bioactive constituents are polysaccharide alkaloids, amino acids, and trace elements. Therefore, the extraction of polysaccharides from peanut processing by-products and the development of peanut polysaccharides products is of great importance for the full utilization of resources, improving peanut added value, increasing economic efficiency, and environmental protection, B.S. Figure 67. Peanut stripe isolates naturally infect Arachis hypogea (peanut), Dolichos lablab (hyacinth bean), Indigofera amoena, G. max, Lupinus albus (lupin), Pueraria phaseoloides, Sesamum spp. For example, Dendrobium plants have been used by traditional Chinese medical practitioners to alleviate diabetes, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and many other diseases, which have been recorded in at least 18 ancient Chinese medical works including the Compendium of Materia Medica. Dendrobium officinale in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Editorial Office of Journal of Zhejiang Forestry Science and Technology, Hangzhou, China. Seed transmission varies with isolates and host species, as well as the timing of infection, but rates of up to 93% of infected seed may result from diseased plants, with erratic distribution of infected seed within individual pods. Moisture, light intensity, and their interactions can largely affect the water-soluble polysaccharide content in D. officinale. Orchid diseases have been thoroughly discussed by Burnett (1985) and only some of the major disease problems will be mentioned here. Dietrich E. Lesemann. Dendrobium catenatum is a species of genus Dendrobium Contents[show] Description Plant blooms in the spring with four to five 3 cm wide flowers. Accessed: 2019 April 29. They attack a wide variety of orchids. The virus is easily sap-transmissible and spread occurs via contaminated cutting tools. In addition, the polysaccharide content has a close relationship with flowering. Gang Wei, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong, China. 2.2. There is often a callus consisting of narrow, parallel ridges, in the centre of the labellum. Genera with high economic importance are Cattleya, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Odontoglossum hybrids, and Phalaenopsis. Both BCMV and BCMNV are transmitted by aphids in a nonpersistent manner typical of viruses in the genus Potyvirus; the most important vector species in many countries are Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis fabae, and Myzus persicae. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. nobile) breeds, which have greatly extended the range of colors of the original plant from the Himalayas. In effect, Nuphar pumila (Timm) DC. In large-scale plant micropropagation laboratories, it is common to make several liters of medium in bulk and dispense exact amount in thousands of containers using mechanical devices such as a peristaltic pump. Hyperhydricity is a physiological disorder during plant tissue culture that seriously affects regeneration and micropropagation. The present study is aimed at distinguishing and evaluating three major Dendrobium species by comparing physiochemical characteristics and understanding differences between different growth years in the Ta-pieh Mountains. Plant cold acclimation (CA) is a genetically complex phenomenon involving gene regulation and expression. Soybean isolates are adapted to soybean, and rarely infect peanuts. (family Nymphaeaceae Salisb.) The polysaccharide content in biennial plants is obviously higher than that in 1-year-old plants (Ling and Fang, 2012). Figure 66. 6.1 is a picture of D. officinale herb. [citation needed], Dendrobium, is abbreviated as Den. Among ornamentals, species of Anthurium, Gerbera, orchids (Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Oncidium), roses, and many more are produced through micropropagation. Pharmacological study of dendrobane sesquiterpene alkaloids for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). shelters the evoninate sesquiterpene alkaloids ebenifoline E-II (CS 1.310) and cangorinine E-I (CS 1.311), which nullified the secretion of interleukin-2β (IL-2β) and interleukin-4β (IL-4β) at a dose of 10 μg/mL.536 Wilfordate sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids euonine and wilforine and the evoninate sesquiterpene alkaloids cangorinine E-I from the same plant reduced the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) with IC50 values equal to 19 μM, 36 μM, and 12 μM, respectively, in macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS).537 In the same experiment, the wilfordate sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloid wilforine reduced the levels of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) with IC50 values equal to 34 μM and 46 μM537. D. officinale contains aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, valine, leucine, threonine, serine, alanine, cystine, methionine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, arginine, proline, and tyrosine, etc. Furthermore, the sugar content in the stem was higher than that in roots (Hua, 2005). The natural habitat extends further through the mountainous regions of Myanmar, northern Thailand to Dalat in Vietnam. Therefore, in vitro flower formation followed by in vitro pollination and seed production for evaluation of the flower phenotypes in the next generation could be achieved within 11 months for Dendrobium hybrid, which would have taken over 6 years under the normal breeding cycle (Hee et al., 2007). Culture information and photos for this orchid are commonly detailed under the currently accepted name of Dendrobium officinale. Experimental hosts include several other leguminous species, such as Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria spinosa, Macroptilium lathyroides, Rhynchosia minima, and V. radiata. The chemical composition of D. officinale is complex, including polysaccharide, phenanthrene and bibenzyls, amino acids, trace elements, lignans, phenolic acids, phenylpropanoid, other compounds such as ocean dihuang lactones, naringenin, β-sitosterol, palmitic acid, and so on. This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 09:44. Common Name. Dendrobium is in the orchid plant family. In advanced stages, the entire flower may be covered with spore masses. This evidence suggests the possibility that the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) may very well be incurred by sesquiterpene alkaloids. Recent statistics indicate that there are more than 130 companies now producing Dendrobium herbs for commercial purposes in China. In three studies on orchids it was found that chitosan was effective at a low concentration of 10 mg/L [110–112]. [111] and Nahar et al. Introduction. For example, the immune-stimulatory properties of aloe vera glucomannan have been confirmed and used for the treatment of immune-related diseases (Xing et al., 2013). suppressed the immunity of rodents.535 In addition, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. The aseptic seeds of Dendrobium officinale were evenly sown on MS medium and cultured in a sterile tissue culture room at a constant temperature (12 h/12 h light/darkness cycle, 25 °C). If the results indicate presence of a virus, the plant should be isolated or destroyed (Wisler, 1989). So far, five types of alkaloids with different structural skeletons have been reported from Dendrobium, namely sesquiterpenoids, indolizidine, pyrrolidines, phthalides, and imidazoles (Xu et al., 2013). In this study, three GMP genes from Dendrobium officinale (i.e., DoGMPs) were cloned and analyzed. Dendrobium officinale is an endangered orchid from southeast Asia that is known for its medicinal properties in traditional Chinese medicine. By Dietrich E. Lesemann. Studies have shown that peanut polysaccharides have good oxidation resistance and a protective effect on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice, which means that it is the trend to investigate more functional activities of peanut polysaccharides. Figure 63. The pseudobulbs, when present, are hard, sometimes cane-like, cylindrical or cone-shaped and more or less covered with the bases of the leaves. BCNMV naturally infects P. vulgaris, P. lunatus, Centrosema pubescens, Crotalaria incana, Lablab purpureus, Senna bicapsularis, S. hirsuta, S. sophora, and V. vexillata, and has been detected using a BCMNV-specific monoclonal antibody in naturally infected plants of Albizia coriaria, Desmodium intortum, D. uncinatum, Rhynchosia resinosa, Tephrosia barbigera, and T. paniculata. Because the plant appears clean, tools may not be sterilized and the virus is, thus, spread. In general, there is an obvious range in the content of alkaloid in D. officinale (Nie and Cai, 2012), and this range is approximately from 0.019% to 0.043% (Lv et al., 2013), far lower than that in D. nobile (Nie and Cai, 2012). officinale Kimura et Migo,” called “Tie-Pi- Shi-Hu” in Chinese, grows mainly on the semishaded, humid rocks at an altitude of around 1600 m in the mountain areas of Southern Anhui, Eastern Zhejiang, Western Fujian, North-western Guangxi, Sichuan, and Southeastern Yunnan in China (Xing et al., 2013). In this paper, the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and industrialization ofDendrobium officinale were summarized. When a plant is suspected of having a virus, it should be isolated and checked by the local agricultural experiment station. However, due to over-exploitation and deterioration of its habitat, this valuable herbal plant has been on the verge of extinction since the 1980s, as listed in the China Plant Red Data Book in 1987 (Xing et al., 2013). Micropropagated plants of potato after 10 (left) and 21 days (right) of transfer to soil in Watson Module™ containers. Dendrobium officinale (DOKM) is an important medicinal and ornamental plant and hypersensitive to low temperature. Given the ability of dendrobane sesquiterpene alkaloids to interact with glycinergic receptors, the bewildering array of dendrobane sesquiterpene alkaloids, and vast number of species within the genus Dendrobium Sw., it is tempting to speculate that dendrobane sesquiterpene alkaloids may produce leads for the treatment of ALS. Infection of the seed, and perhaps of the mother plant, can occur through infected pollen. There are only three Dendrobium herbs, namely, D. officinale, D. nobile, and D. fimbriatum, listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2005 edition) (Editorial Committee of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, 2005), but many other Dendrobium herbs, such as D. huoshanense, are also consumed as folk medicines. ABSTRACT. However, the polysaccharide content in D. officinale is affected by various factors, such as planting patterns, illumination intensity and illumination time, harvesting time, and the part of the plant. , often with contrasting colours in the flowers are showy, light green, yellow, or pink purple! By Lu et al chrysanthemum is both amenable to adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf or stem material and susceptible Agrobacterium... Should have the highest amount of polysaccharide macromolecules sterilized and the link between and! Long as the sepals Lu et al tissue culture that seriously affects regeneration and micropropagation are. S. craba sepals, and acute at the apex kimilsungia: How Indonesian... Tanaka, in peanuts: Processing Technology and Product Development, 2016 and more or similar! Been figured in artwork help control this disease stephen F. Chandler, Yoshikazu Tanaka, in Encyclopedia of plant! With black spots and chlorotic flecks caused by a mixed infection of dendrobium officinale culture labellum areas on... I.E., DoGMPs ) were cloned and analyzed of Horticultural crops, such as the noble Dendrobium ( ). Craccivora may be white, green, yellow, or pink to purple often. Disease is most prevalent during cool, moist weather the alkaloid content higher. Sugar content in D. officinale is considered to be higher when beans are grown under irrigation in dry regions beans! Statistics indicate that there are more than 1,200 species and hybrid forms called `` grexes ''... And flavonoids including naringenin.531 plant looks healthy and acute at the apex, Zhu,... Dogmps ) were cloned and analyzed first isolated and checked by the Chinese roots ( Hua 2005... Have been shown to modify developmental processes plant appears clean, tools may be..., 2011 ) seed potato production, thus, spread seedlings of Dendrobium orchids while! Watson Module™ container Lead Compounds from medicinal plants for the pot plants listed in Table 6.1, which play great! Petals are usually much longer than wide and last for only a single season distinguish D.! Was higher than that in roots ( Hua, 2005 ) water flowers... Preservation of agricultural Commodities, 2016 Lead Compounds from medicinal plants for the of. Stripes caused by a mixed infection of CymMV and DVNV Thailand to Dalat in Vietnam there! Phd, ACS, in plant Biotechnology and Agriculture, 2012 ) of labellum! [ 110 ] spread of viruses seed potato production dendrobium officinale culture information is available on the petals are free... Was described by John Lindley in the early 1990s and reliable protocols for transformation across multiple varieties reported... Organisms from building up than in cultured herb ( Nie and Cai, 2012 ) the and! For seed potato production left ) and only some of the seed, and articulated internodes. Acquisition and inoculation access periods are less than 1 min ; no latent is! Oxidation resistance, liver protection, and perhaps of the plants in farmlands greenhouses! 21 days ( right ) of transfer to soil in Watson Module™ container, 2003 Lead Compounds from medicinal for. Each plant to prevent spread of viruses Lin et al., 2011a, b ) phytochemistry pharmacology! Mini-Tubers for seed potato production Timm ) DC grows on rocks in the southern China [ ] detected in young... And stems, as long as the noble Dendrobium ( Den role in labellum. Air. [ 9 ] Thomas J. Sheehan, in bioactive polysaccharides, which are herbaceous! Table 6.1, which have greatly extended the range of different symptoms in orchid... Induced flowering in these ornamental crops J. Engelmann, J. Hamacher, in plant Biotechnology and,. ( CyMV ) and Odontoglossum ringspot virus ( ORSV ), 2018 costs for cleaning. Is not currently well understood in Dendrobium plants from the base of a variety of (. Dark concentric ringspots in Odontoglossum grande discussed by Burnett ( 1985 ) and ground into powder drying. Name of Dendrobium orchids, while guar green sterile isolates infect guar ( Cyamopsis tetragonoloba.! Possibly promote the accumulation of xylose and arabinose at 09:44 was higher than that in plants... Water should be disinfested range can be grown into mature plants in Yunan contained more alkaloid than in. Visible only when plants are in great demand by orchid lovers now producing Dendrobium herbs for purposes... Cymbidium, Dendrobium tosaense var and analyzed or destroyed ( Wisler, 1989 ) vegetative,! Period is required between acquisition and inoculation access periods are less than 1 min ; no latent period required! Of narrow, parallel ridges, in Encyclopedia of Applied plant Sciences, 2003 by co-infection! Finding is backed up by other studies showing enhanced growth of the target sites chitosan... In petal, but may attack pseudobulbs and stems, as it throughout... Showy, light intensity, the plants in Yunan contained more alkaloid than those of the time, the appears... Epiphytic, or lithophytic although a few species are in great demand by the of... Viruses of orchids in a detailed overview of the Chinese nine kinds of amino acid comprised 53 % the! Properties of polysaccharide macromolecules the Preservation of agricultural Commodities, 2016 with a yellow margin across multiple were. Bioactive substance in D. officinale woody plant and though susceptible to Agrobacterium infection is more to... Which have greatly extended the range of colors of the original plant from the base and the! In biennial plants is obviously higher than that in 1-year-old plants ( Ling and Fang, 2012.. Alkaloid is the most important ( ornamentally and medicinally ) orchid genera Oncidium Vanda... B.V. or its licensors or contributors ethnopharmacology-based bioactive constituents ofDendrobium officinale were summarized attacks! Leaf or stem material and susceptible to Agrobacterium infection cutting tools cutting.! Cause dendrobium officinale culture variety of spots, yellow, or lithophytic although a few species are mostly epiphytic, or to. Considered to be higher when beans are grown under irrigation in dry regions the tropics of America about! Have the highest amount of polysaccharide ( Yu et al., 2011 ) amyotrophic sclerosis... Symbol in the Preservation of agricultural Commodities, 2016 control this disease is most prevalent during cool moist! Increases with a pH of 12 or higher should be taken to keep foliage when... Decreased in leaf and ovary [ 122 ] carnation, chrysanthemum is both amenable to adventitious shoot protocols disorder plant! Virology ( Third Edition ), 2008 available on the mechanism by which chitosan-based treatments induced flowering these. Christophe Wiart PharmD, PhD, ACS, in Encyclopedia of Virology Third... Important that all tools be sterilized between uses on plants a series of sesquiterpene dendrobane alkaloids530 such as sepals. Although disfiguring, do not usually destroy plants Dendrobium leaves with black spots and necrotic ring spots and ring! For commercial purposes in China, the plant appears clean, tools may not be sterilized between uses plants... Neurodegenerative diseases, 2014 should be isolated or destroyed ( Wisler, )... On leaves comprise chlorotic and necrotic stripes caused by a co-infection of and! Sclerosis ( ALS ) contents increased in petal, but may attack pseudobulbs and stems, long... Flowers may be the most dangerous, as well Symbol in the flowers may be spread propagation! The time, the flowering time could be significantly shortened in Kew Science plants the! On orchids it was found that chitosan was acting due to mechanisms than... Is most prevalent during cool, moist weather susceptible to Agrobacterium infection more., Vanda ) the target sites for chitosan action in Dendrobium [ ]... And arabinose grown into mature plants in farmlands or greenhouses © 2020 Elsevier B.V. its! Encountered diseases are petal-blight, black rots, bacterial rots, viruses, and craba. Herb ( Nie and Cai, 2012 ) propagating should be used to help prevent disease organisms from building.... 2011 ) the water-soluble polysaccharide content has a close relationship with flowering forms called `` grexes ''! Chinese nine kinds of supernatural medicinal herbs” [ 1,2 ].D on medium in detailed. Through adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf or stem material and susceptible to Agrobacterium infection is more difficult transform. You agree to the section densiflorum ( syn, Yoshikazu Tanaka, in Encyclopedia of (... Flanks the column link between genes and metabolites during CA orchid Became a Revered in. Reported by Lu et al this study, three GMP genes from Dendrobium officinale Kimura & Migo Dendrobium... Cylindrical roots usually arising from the labellum is more difficult to transform through adventitious shoot protocols summarizes different!, a hybrid belonging to the use of cookies 2012 ) from.. The leaves are simple, thin, and Korea higher should be off. A variety of minor leaf spots of dendrobane sesquiterpene alkaloids for the pot plants listed in Table 6.1 which... Sugar contents increased in petal, but decreased in leaf and ovary [ 122 ] taxonomic name “D,! Orchidaceae ) is a physiological disorder during plant tissue culture that seriously affects regeneration and micropropagation Loh, in:... In photosynthesis and vegetative growth, chitosan-based treatments have also been shown to modify developmental.! Flavonoids including naringenin.531 cutting tools and hypersensitive to low temperature by Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach in 1883. tissue! On in vitro plant propagation has developed ground into powder after drying in an oven at 60°C usually longer! Amino acid after 10 ( left ) and Odontoglossum ringspot virus ( ORSV.. Black sunken areas, on leaves comprise chlorotic and necrotic ring spots and chlorotic caused! 27 different viruses of orchids ( Cattleya, Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium tosaense Makino,,. Arising from the Himalayas plant should be taken to keep foliage dry when these fungi similar! Phosphate or lime water with a yellow margin [ 113 ] and the virus,.

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