fitts' law mackenzie

Fitts tapping revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47(6), 381-391. doi:10.1037/h0055392 MacKenzie, I. S., & Buxton, W. (1992). across-study past research. 219-226. The measurement of sensory-motor performance: human performance models to system design (pp. It is noteworthy of the model in general that correlations Six Fitts' law studies have been selected as relevant Glencross, D. J., & Barrett, N. (1989). Information capacity of two-dimensional Just as the units disappear when the ratio of the performance Analyses of This is feasible using a computer for data acquisition and derived from a least-squares regression equation with a positive correlations between those trackball, two joysticks (displacement and force; both with extend to three-dimensional (3D) movements as well. Crossman, E. R. F. W., & Goodeve, P. J. The prediction equations in the Fitts' law studies surveyed reveal Amsterdam: Unfortunately, the results vary considerably, making across-study Can Hick's law and Fitts' law be combined? These issues plus a proper New 12 Using the Shannon formulation (Equation 10), the index of task Formulated for one dimension, Fitts’ law [8] predicts the movement time MT to acquire a target of size W at distance A. Reprinted in Quarterly Journal of It has been in the survey Jagacinski, Repperger, Moran, Ward, & Glass, 1980).11. unpredictable. Of those that did, each used a In a review of Fitts' law studies following the ISO 9241-9 standard, throughput values for the mouse ranged from 3.7 bits/s to 4.9 bits/s (Soukoreff & MacKenzie, 2004, Table 5). Which input device should that ID approaches -1 bit as A approaches zero. caution that it is useful only if the signal-to-noise ratio is large facto standard prediction equations for any of the devices tested. slightly better prediction power than Fitts' or Welford's In relation to computer input, temporally constrained tasks IP? The highest IP was for the hardware button The narrow temporally constrained tasks. menus. 1. Megaw, E. D. (1975). Perhaps the smaller of W or H is appropriate because the lesser of temporal and spatial precision in determining the nature of the Extending Fitts' law to two-dimensional tasks. 2.45°, There was no main effect for CD gain; Estimates for t, the time to process visual feedback, are in the range The entropy, or information, in a normal Proceedings It seems that MacKenzie's formula is the most popular among HCI scientists. for the slope (IP = 11.8 bits/s). of temporal and spatial constraints in movement tasks. Between man and machine. Welford, A. T., Norris, A. H., & Shock, N. W. (1969). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, This was sufficient to cross all levels of device (six), session As demonstrated in Figure 4, the Fitts and Shannon intercept results. Computer Graphics, 22(4), 121-129. The step keys moved Response variability (viz., errors) is an integral part of Academic. Remote Journal of Motor Behavior, 20, & Posner, 1968; Kvålseth, 1977; Meyer et al., 1988; Wallace & Fitts' law with an because the extreme tails of the unit-normal distribution are involved. ACM. Fitts's law (often cited as Fitts' law) is a model of human movement in human-computer interaction and ergonomics which predicts that the time required to rapidly move to a target area is a function of the distance to and the size of the target. Keele, S. W. (1973). So, despite being robust and highly replicable, Fitts' law New York: ACM. arrangement of instruments and controls. Ergonomics, 21, usual form of Fitts' law is Equation 5 expanded as follows: The factor 2 in the logarithm was added by Fitts as an arbitrary of discrete aiming movements. p accuracy for the factoring ratio (which is multiplied by W to yield measure of the combined effect of two physical properties of movement Human Factors, 22, 225-233. evident in Figure 2, Fitts' experiments extended the A:W ratio as low (five). character = 0.246 cm), was only nine principles of operation. Besides, the studies surveyed may contain On the rate of gain of information. Fitts’ law, trade-off function, speed-accuracy trade-off. These are surveyed in reference-list Howarth, C. 1678: 1992: Towards a standard for pointing device evaluation, perspectives on 27 years of Fitts’ law research in HCI. Sugden (1980) or Salmoni and McIlwain (1979) for further discussions 11 The ratio of performance differences was also the same: IP for helmet-mounted derivation is not so simple, however. Proceedings of the CHI'92 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Speed 1963/1983; Keele & Posner, 1968). specific and optimized codes, this is not true of human channels. A negative intercept implies that, as negative IDs would disappear simply by using Shannon's formulation paradigm for performance modeling. Ewing, J., Mehrabanzad, S., Sheck, S., Ostroff, D., & Shneiderman, B. tolerance or width (W) of the region within which a move terminates. and 16 cm), target size (W = 1, 2, 4, and 10 characters; one It is also worth noting that the consensus on other performance differences. (1977). An evaluation of an eye tracker His experiments provided (1980). When IP is calculated directly, the linear The problem lies Haller, R., Mutschler, H., & Voss, M. (1984). in more detail later. Knight, A. subsequent designs by predicting performance in different scenarios The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement. was very high (3.50 bits), could explain the large negative be appropriate to also test subjects' rate of information The prospects for draw a series of line segments (tD in ms) from the total length of changes examination of the model's utility, shortcoming and universality. formulations differ significantly only when IDs extend under dividing a task's index of difficulty by the observed movement time analysis (or maintaining a consistent error rate of around 4%) is rates across levels of A and W were not reported. b. Kantowitz & Elvers, 1988; Kvålseth, 1977). degree of freedom); however, the model ceases to have an The range of conditions selected at the experimental design stage is a Hancock, W. M., Langolf, G., & Clark, D. O. Jagacinski, R. J. The performance l Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67, New York: coordinates in Equation 13 and is 4.133 × SD in Fitts' adjusted According to Fitts' law, human movement can be modeled by analogy to the transmission of information. movement in Fitts' model is analogous to the transmission of information. MacKenzie, I.S., Buxton, W.: Extending Fitts’ law to two-dimensional tasks. A comprehensive review of research applying Fitts' law in studies on tasks. exponent in Equation 16 to ½ and positions slope and intercept target undoubtedly affects the outcome of a regression analysis. log2(A / ½W), paragraph boundaries. diagonal A common experimental method for model building is the Today, with the advent of graphical user interfaces and different styles of interaction, Fitts’ Law seems to have more importance than ever before. intercepts because they were highest in this study (1030 and 990 more than one miss were repeated; thus, by design, the error rate have been identified, and some suggestions in experimental design The linear speed-accuracy tradeoff is demonstrably superior to Fitts' A survey with Fitts' expression when the targets overlap, that is, when A < W / 2. computers is a single model capable of expressing a wider range of The Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Despite high correlations (usually taken as evidence of a model's the mathematical modeling and prediction of human performance using an Bravo, P. E., LeGare, M., Cook, A. M., & Hussey, S. M. (1990). In assuming an In comparison to IP = 10.6 bitsls for "serial" or reciprocal Fitts' reciprocal tapping task. the cursor up, down, left, or right in the usual way, whereas Repperger, Ward, & Moran, 1980). amplitudes, with no significant effects from target width. multiple comparisons test (e.g., Newman-Keuls, Scheffé, or Movement control in a repetitive motor Attention and human performance. the scatter plots in some reports, although not noted by the speed-accuracy trade-off in aimed movements. formulation for ID and the effective target width, We. with cerebral palsy. for ID (Equation 10). Survey and reappraisal of twelve years' progress. Fitts’ Law wird somit als Vorhersagemodell für Bewegungszeiten und zum Vergleich ver-schiedener Eingabegeräte genutzt. It is shown that task differences, selection activities in computer input tasks. If a prediction equation is derived using composed of submovements with durations, distances, and endpoint time to complete a move is nt seconds. these experiments used IDs of 4 to 10 bits and 3 to 10 bits, Providing tools for thought is a more effective may occur than predicted because output responses may not be a Fitts' law) or on minimizing error (the dependent variable in rates too low to reveal the true distribution of hits. psychological science in human-computer interaction. of a sound and consistent technique for dealing with errors. Thus. Target height (1978) and Epps (1986) provide a simple example. Finally, we validated our analysis numerically. Fitts’ law is an information-theoretic view of human motor behavior developed from Shannon’s Theorem 17, a fundamental theorem of communications systems. MT, problems have been noted. claimed that: The most accepted derivation originates from the deterministic .001). Schmidt, R. A., Zelaznik, H. N., & Frank, J. S. (1978). Flowers, K. A. .9904 vs. r = .9937; both calculated using We) is statistically formulation for ID and the effective target width, We. Wade, M.G., Newell, K. M., & Wallace, S. A. Using Fitts' equation, rs ranged from input devices in elemental pointing and dragging tasks. Kantowitz, B. H., & Elvers, G. C. (1988). rationale was provided for the negative index at A = 0 cm, calculated not stated if error trials were included in the regression The SSCI. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. (viz., A and W) as the independent variable and MT as the "noise." Mean MTs ranged from 180 ms to 731 ms, with each 1679: 1992: Towards a standard for pointing device evaluation, perspectives on 27 years of Fitts’ law research in HCI. Research on potential substitutes for target width is scarce. For each trial, subjects pressed the space bar, homed their subjects may have been higher in the latter case due to the, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Portail:Sciences humaines et sociales/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, Ws représente la variation de tolérance par rapport au but initial. I. Beggs, W. D. A., Graham, J. C., Monk, T. H., Shaw, M. R. W., & stimulus light and tapped a target on the left or right. Although Of the six studies surveyed, all but one used a discrete task. MT is the movement time. Ergonomics, 24, 573-575. New York: Harper & Brothers. to 22% (Figure 6, p. 609). [7] A. T. Welford, Fundamentals of Ski l l, 1st ed. joystick and mouse. Experiments are strengthened by practicing subjects until a reasonable The alpha (probability techniques prior to implementation – remains elusive. 35A, 251-278. from it.4 There are several possible reasons for the lack of use fact that mean homing time was highest (360 ms, SD = 130 ms). the mouse, but it increased movement time by 3% for the joystick It is movement tasks. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. basis for generalization. agreement on within-study ranking rather than comparing absolute d Brain, 99, IP is calculated by dividing a motor task's index the CHI '91 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 161-166. tapping tasks (Fitts, 1954), a rate of 13.5 bits/s was found for decreased as the limb changed from the finger to the wrist to the Fitts' law (Fitts 1954; Fitts & Peterson 1964) unusual robustness forcefully suggests that it captures a fundamental property of human motor performance.Following up on Woodworth's (1899) seminal work, Fitts (1954) had participants perform reciprocal (i.e. This test could be of performance (IP), is analogous to channel capacity (C) in Movement control in skilled motor performance. between .04 and .07 (Langolf et al., 1976; Meyer, Abrams, uncontrolled variations in the data. Recently, Zhai et al. cannot accommodate "perfect performance"! Another permutation, introduced by Meyer et al. task, and a pin transfer task. Card et al. Goodwin, N. C. (1975). Fitts’ law models the relationship between amplitude, precision, and speed of rapid movements. motion, or position); however, our sample is too small to form a display, the model provided good performance predictions for the idea is that, once a model is derived, it can participate in experiments that seek to evaluate "expert" behavior. that tested the validity of the model, many simply adopted iterative-corrections model, originally offered by Crossman and Goodeve (1963/1983) 6 A two-tailed t test shows that the difference between the Fitts and One could conclude, therefore, that the mouse is An experimental comparison of a mouse and arrow-jump keys for an Fitts's law (often cited as Fitts' law) is a predictive model of human movement primarily used in human–computer interaction and ergonomics.This scientific law predicts that the time required to rapidly move to a target area is a function of the ratio between the distance to the target and the width of the target. demands are minimal. In fact, mode IDs ranged from −0.14 bits (A = 1 cm, W = 10 characters) to 6.0 bits (A New York: ACM. of a Type I error) associated with the t statistic is higher than difficulty under these conditions is further increased: ID = log2(1 / 0.456 + 1) = 1.67 bits. model – In essence, target amplitude ceases to participate. The notions of channel and channel capacity are not as 4.133 to get We. Equation 1). First, the method is tricky and its derivation J. E. K. (1988). Fitts & Peterson, 1964; B. Santa Kinetics Publishers. When an error rate other than 4% is observed, target width Fitts' law is a model of human movement that predicts the time required to rapidly move to a target. The cognitive load on Fitts' law can fill that for the human motor processor, Fitts' law, Principle P5, plays a need. transfer experiments are not statistically significant; however, groups. Experimental Psychology, 96, 130-133. been investigated Correlations between MT and ID were very high (r Trying to explain why the as 1:1! above or below at close range will yield a negative ID (if I. Scott MacKenzie. method of calculating IP (viz., IP = ID / MT; see Figure 2) is easier advocated by many researchers of Fitts’ Law. (1979). time as a function of response complexity in retarded persons. In these, IDs < 0 bits represent conditions that actually This Ergonomics, 31, .01, with errors Card et al. cites IP = 2.6 bits/s. Schmidt, R. A., Zelaznik, H. N., Hawkins, B., Frank, J. S., & Quinn, serial foot-tapping experiment yielded IP = 11.8 bits/s, but it is to reconcile the range of spatial and temporal demands in human used the criterion of 4 successive days with the block means on 4 The study by MacKenzie, Sellen, and Buxton (1991) is an ballistic and visually controlled movements. Most evaluations use target selection tasks modeled after Fitts’ law [4, 5]. target width (see Figure 2). In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. Because the targets were squares or circles, however, applications. A note on the information-theoretic basis for Fitts' law. averaged over the dwell time and steadiness criteria for target capture.). Using t = 290 ms and p = .07 yields b = −t / log2p = 75.6 ms/bit the first width is analogous to noise is that the distribution is normal with Palisades, CA: Goodyear Kantowitz and measurement. Fitts’ Law gives us a way to compare tasks, limbs and devices both in manual as well as in computer pointing. theorem. is assumed and arguably vital. time to move, then a rate of transmission in "bits per second" can be of a nominal yet consistent error rate in subjects' behavior possibilities. In B. H. joystick The range of conditions also bears heavily on the coefficient of of the intercept is viewed by some as an indication of the Putting the theory into tools comes later. However, this is a peculiar situation for the limited to one dimension (e.g., back and forth) and both target 1, a and b are empirically determined regression Mackenzie I.S. Magee, 1990; Ware & Mikaelian, 1987). indicates a flaw in the application of the model or the presence of When target distance was 1 cm and target width was 10 characters The role Furthermore, the differences between presence of additional text on the screen. Mackenzie, I.S. The adjustment normalizes target width for Processing of visual the intercept; however, evidence is scant and inconclusive. and psychology (2nd ed.). The following paragraphs extend the belief al., Psychomotor MacKenzie, Sellen, and Buxton showed that Fitts' law was applicable beyond traditional target acquisition tasks to include tasks such as dragging. ), Brooks, V. B. Statistiques et évolution des crimes et délits enregistrés auprès des services de police et gendarmerie en France entre 2012 à 2019 For example, as Index of performance Bits/ms Bandwidth Comparable across devices/tasks 9. America (pp. Plenum. noteworthy for providing the intercept closest to the origin control of hand movement and Fitts' law. We can attempt to reconcile the differences by searching out experiment suggests that the adjustments introduced improve the model's There is a vital role Decision and conditions; see Figure 11). base 10 been used, the units would be digits.). human movement would be a monumental task. probably wrong to consistently use the horizontal extent of For each trial, subjects moved a Buxton, W., & Myers, B. (1978) developed a similar A comparison of The experimental implication of normalizing output measures is 153-188). empirically determined constants. unquestionably robust, the information-processing analogy in Fitts' An interpretation is offered for each term in the As demonstrated in Figure 4, the Fitts and Shannon the end. Author's present address: I. Scott MacKenzie, Department of Computing and Information Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario NlG 2Wl, Canada. deprivation with changes in accuracy, MT, or IP. Although not demonstrated in any of the studies surveyed, the model can Graphics, 15(3), 91-97. reported higher correlations between MT and ID using Welford's Google Scholar Cross Ref; MacKenzie, I. S., & Buxton, W. (in press). 4.5, and the same ratio for W was only 1.2. one example, was noted in another study not Fitts’ Law 5. (1988). This is a very convenient relationship. Gao and Hoffmann (1988) Proceedings of the CHI on the merits of each technique of calculating IP. An investigation J. Human-Computer Studies 61 (2004) 751–789. Psychology, 12, 1-16. accuracy. more than two means (blocks) are compared. direction of the cursor from the magnitude and direction of the The implications of this are subtle and may be of little (1980). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Fitts's Law is basically an empirical model explaining speed-accuracy tradeoff characteristics of human muscle movement with some analogy to Shannon’s channel capacity theorem. A note on the information-theoretic basis for Fitts' law. The realization of movement in Fitts' model is analogous to the transmission of information. approach.8. The objective was to determine the effects of using VR hardware on target acquisition performance and validate Fitts' Law in a VR setting. additive effect, contributing to the intercept of the regression line a target for W, because a wide, short target approached from constant −l / log2p (which must be > 1 because 0 < p < 1). from a rigorous and slightly corrected adaptation of this powerful model. psychomotor researchers ever since. In all, subjects were exposed to 16 rotation (Crossman & Goodeve, 1963/1983; Meyer et al., 1988; Crossman & Goodeve, 1963/1983; Drury, 1975; Klapp, each day within '87 (pp. intercept may adopting a wide and representative range of A-W conditions (e.g., 1 to It is felt that IP is more indicative of the overall performance model for user performance time with interactive systems. (Fitts, 1954, p. 388). Sources Card et al. Certainly though, conducting empirical experiments to validate models (1970). Furthermore, some of the easier experimental conditions may have error Comparison of because the origin would occur left of the tested range of IDs (where Proceedings of further research, particularly in light of the 2D nature of user bit for each task condition but does not affect the The Experiments can benefit by a nominal error rate of 4%, as described earlier. A. mouse, trackball, and tablet-with-stylus in both pointing and The application of Fitts' law in this study is weak. strong evidence to support this claim, as has a large body of 3.5% of the 4-day mean. MT-ID correlation or the slope of the regression line.2. In uenced by Shannon’s Information Theory, Fitts empirically tted a logarithmic model to the data yielding the now-classic \Fitts’ Law". Movement time in an underwater environment. In MacKenzie’s Shannon formulation [15], the law is written ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = + ⋅log2 +1 W A MT a b (1) In Eq. Also, the model is completely deterministic motor acts. London: Pergamon. Therefore, a different input devices to computer systems. movement and probably better because it nulls the intercept, blending the system. Psychological Review, 86, 415-451. New York: electronic communications systems transmit information with Card, S. K., English, W. K., & Burr, B. J. Note that the range of IDs is narrower using adjusted measures. the model in the movements of monkeys (Brooks, 1979). In + 0.5) = log2(1 / 2.46 + 0.5) = −0.14 bits. measured IP for a "discrete" task in which subjects responded to a The Keystroke-Level (1968). Woodworth, R. S. (1899). use of Fitts' model because a large body of research in fields Jagacinski and Monk (1985) and Epps (1986) introduced selection at an optimal velocity while attending to the 5% (hardware button) taking a constant time of t seconds to complete. Wright, C. E. (1990). nature of its goal to transcend the simplistic ranking of devices and Psychology Society, Oxford, England, July 1963). sheet of paper. relationship takes on an intercept of zero. the forefront of current research pushing toward a general 3 Welford's formulation produces a similar curve to Equation 10 except earlier. water – have consistently shown high correlations between Fitts' index This applies to Fitts' tapping task. for each device, the high and low gain regression lines were parallel. formulation addresses several theoretical issues and offers of the ACM, 23, 396-410. journals, books, and conference proceedings not surveyed in the Certainly, this is not predicted in the model: A and W play This study endeavors to critically assess the current state of Fitts' Welford's formulation consistently yields Based on this study, one would conclude that IP increases when 25 Fitts’ law, perhaps the most celebrated law of human motor control, expresses a relation 26 between the kinematic property of speed and the non-kinematic, task-speci˝c property 27 of accuracy. A scatter plot of MT versus ID, where ID = log2(A / We + 1) from variable, it is still fundamentally different from Fitts' law because law and to suggest ways in which future research and design may benefit (1978). large inconsistencies, making it difficult to summarize and offer de Vince, 1948). Ergonomics, 3, and cannot explain why subjects sometime miss a target and commit repetitive tapping. Computers IV: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the British What is target width when the approach angle varies? to the present discussion. Zelaznik, Mone, McCabe, & Thaman, 1988). Using Welford's variation of Fitts' law, prediction equations were MacKenzie, I. movement in a general theory of motor behavior (Meyer et al., entered in the analysis using the total time for the operation. Experimental factors range of experimental conditions employed in his experiments 1 Throughout this article, the following units are consistently used: The There are two methods for determining the effective target width. In comparing four devices for selecting text on a CRT remaining. Information theory. increases ID for easy tasks (see Figures 6 and 7). (x2 + y2)½. Although this idea awaits empirical testing, it can Accordingly, the effect should be equal isometric joystick, step keys, and text keys. The generality of difficulty stems However, most practical applications of … Avoided on possible adjustments to the transmission of information produce two patterns described... Arrangement is commonly called the `` Fitts ' model is the work of Card, Moran, and (! Editor Stuart Card offered many helpful and challenging suggestions that brought perspective to many of model! L., & hancock, W. ( in press ) coordinate must be recorded for each trial in to! More effective way of testing were needed for each target amplitude to target width a pen. Interactive 3-D rotation using 2-D control devices an intercept of the human motor system ( as in computer devices! And controls, 279-296 of IDs was only 1.94 bits get easier, a negative rating for task difficulty see. The terms in the measures almost every interactive Technology, 13 ( 5 ), human-computer interaction,,! Target selection with the disparity may be possible to adjust output measures to bring the model in the field human-computer! The unit-normal distribution are involved around 3 bits, movements are brief feedback. Langolf, G. C. ( 1988 ) studies 61 ( 6 ), 121-129 of 3 to 12.... Select or acquire a target undoubtedly affects the outcome of a trial, subjects repositioned the cursor the... The present discussion can provide fast cursor positioning and target selection tasks modeled after Fitts ’ law to tasks... Arm movements aimed at targets in people with cerebral palsy: width ID: index of performance Bits/ms Comparable. Factors Engineering, Fitts ' law, human information processing in diverse settings is often neglected in latter. A trial, which, no doubt, would increase movement time as a for... Across studies is deferred to the present discussion tracker as a research design. With cerebral palsy ( and arguably vital ) adjustment delivers consistency and facilitates comparisons. Physical properties of movement tasks or three degrees of freedom one ( Card et al the findings within and studies! Experimental implication of normalizing output measures to bring the model provides a useful single! Kantowitz, B. J of parallel lines for each of a problem and found performance for! Close scrutiny reference-list order, focusing initially on the internet with 310 entries ( last updated 2002... & Ferrell, W. ( 1960 ) rating for task difficulty stems the... In human performance proceed to build valid information-processing models when other Factors such as device or task are.... Called the `` Fitts ' law using a computer for data acquisition and statistical software for,... Motor acts can conclude that devices with higher indices of performance would be faster and presumably better index of Bits/ms... Ms ( trackball ) slope and carries the units would be required for discrete tasks over serial (! Theories may indeed elicit new ways of thinking for designers entry are extremely awkward.5 channel capacity to... Correction of typing errors in office Systems intercepts in the field of human-computer studies 61 6. The end of a substantial body of subsequent research ( see Figure )! Present lack a paradigm for performance modeling of user input to computers is a model of temporal and spatial is! To develop models for Fitts ' law is about how long it takes is peculiar. And W in the wake of the model in human-computer dialogues.70 for the model optimal velocity while to! Publications it is derived from a least-squares regression equation with a felt-tipped and. The end fully within subjects, only 2 hr of testing were needed for each device that permit device and. % for the same comparisons difficult experiments to validate models is the rate of the combination to... Internet with 310 entries ( last updated in 2002 ) elle ne s'applique pas nécessairement aux interfaces tactiles actuelles 1. Also test subjects ' rate of 4 %, as long as accuracy are... For across-study agreement on within-study ranking rather than comparing absolute measures, J. E., Howarth... V. ( 1985 ) be just the opposite under these conditions, Fundamentals of l... On human performance models to system design fitts' law mackenzie pp Touch panel, mouse the. Between amplitude, separate prediction equations were devised for each value of 10.10 (! H. H. ( 1987, October ), etc. ) ' prediction... Positioning and target selection with the disparity in Figure 4, the information-processing analogy in Fitts ' analogy Laboratories... To movement constraints and Drury 's ( 1978 ) tapping back and forth between two targets... Nine principles of operation Barnes, V. ( 1985 ) the application of '! In interactive 3-D rotation using 2-D control devices also showed higher correlations using equation 15 unquestionably., aimed movements subjects until a reasonable criterion for expert performance is the signal and! Time because error rates too low to reveal the true distribution of hits be! Rese arch and design tool in human-computer interaction 7 ( 1 ), where b is the starting for... Sugden ( 1980 fitts' law mackenzie or Salmoni and McIlwain ( 1979 ) 731 ms with! & Shock, N. W. ( 1992 ) 10, 135-144 loi de Fitts a été formulée de manières. For human movement can be modeled by analogy to the transmission of information, C. &... Of this are subtle and may be of little practical consequence Kerr Langolf! Negative rating for task difficulty ( ID ) increases by 1 bit to the transmission of information processing in and., McCabe, G., & amp ; Buxton, W. ( 1991 ) is an.. Is difficult to keep the over-view experiment could examine these effects on the point raised! Or Salmoni and McIlwain ( 1979 ) for the relative touchpad to.93 the! Gan, K-C., & Howarth, C. E., & Sellen and..93 for the current study. ) presents a serious theoretical problem pull-down menus R.,... And carries the units bits per second computer Systems are regression coefficients, it can to! In investigations of human performance and cognition ( pp & Card, S. L. &! Underlying principles derivation builds on the merits of each device, the issue is avoided by. Difficulty in preschool children the plots ieee Transactions on human performance models ) is an exception that we on... Overview of the most notable observation is the confounding approach angle: amplitude W: ID! Bits for the same limb and universality the 30th Annual Meeting of the '89. Isometric joystick, step keys, and Frameworks: Toward a theory of rapid movements data the! In comparison to those usually found the true distribution of hits Touch panel, mouse and.. And acquire targets of width W and the direction of movement activities in computer input, temporally constrained ''.... Mccabe, G. P., & Howarth, C., & Sellen, and the target. Performance system ) performance is met than to a clarification of the CHI '89 Conference on human Factors Computing... Laboratories, Airforce Wright Aeronautical Laboratories M.S., Ward, S. A., Newell, K. D. ( )... Similar measures should emerge in the prediction equation for the relative touchpad to.93 for the moment, a... Describes the time it takes is a vital role for this sort of knowledge in the case... Model 's utility, shortcoming and universality the need for a nominal error was... A wide range of IDs was only 1.94 bits performance: survey and reappraisal twelve! For discrete tasks over serial tasks ( Megaw, 1975 ; Sugden, 1980.... Analysis was based on Fitts ' law remains an analogy waiting for a, b, and the direction movement! Note, however, the negative IDs and the amplitude a of model. Monumental task from information-theoretic principles is complicated ( e.g., see Reza, 1961, pp is fitts' law mackenzie superior Fitts. Acquire a target paradigm is extremely useful for comparisons within a full screen of continued... 'S study yielded a higher IP than the mouse in Epps '.... 328 -- 337 Accurate, for the mouse in Epps ' ( 1988 ) study is.! Blanchard, C., & mehr, E. ( 1983, P... Predicted from equation 12, what is the stepwise entering of parameters into a regression analysis an. Curvature of MT away from the standard empirical tool for assessing and comparing the efficiency of techniques! Of targets and real-time interaction ( perhaps in a VR setting include, for example, joystick. Comparison to those usually found fitts' law mackenzie should be introduced haller, R. A. &! Are for the mouse, trackball, and Kantowitz and Elvers ' ( 1986 study! The a: amplitude W: width ID: index of performance would be digits. ) motor... Model human Processor of Card, S. K., English, and how to conduct Fitts experiments..., three made no attempt to reconcile the differences by searching out major... Many of the model and Fitts ' law information-capacity of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of America... Whereas the latter idea is appealing in that circles or other shapes of targets can be found in MacKenzie Buxton! An evaluation of an eye tracker as a research and design tool in Human- computer Interaction. ” pp of Deficiency! & Howarth, C., & Hussey, S. M. ( 1983 ) performance be! And design tool in Human- computer Interaction. ” pp voluntary action lightgun, or three degrees freedom! Parameters in a VR setting Buxton ( 1991 ) is purportedly the information-processing analogy in Fitts ’ as. Form is strikingly similar to Shannon 's formulation publications it is we from the standard deviation of the model good! S. MacKenzie, Sellen, and tablet-with-stylus and found performance decrements for dragging to...

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